Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)

On May 8, President Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the Iran nuclear deal completed in 2015, otherwise known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). The scuttling of the deal re-imposes sanctions on the country that had been suspended as part of the agreement. In an Alert published Thursday, partner Nevena Simidjiyska examines this development and the specific sanctions involved, and discusses its impact on U.S. companies doing business with Iran.

The White House, Washington, D.C.Pursuant to the JCPOA, which was signed under President Obama in 2015, Iran agreed to limit its nuclear program by curbing its enrichment of uranium, spent fuel processing, and research and development activities. In exchange, the U.S. lifted most “secondary sanctions” targeting non-U.S. persons and companies that transact business with Iran and allowed the importation of certain Iranian products into the U.S. In addition, the U.S. allowed non-U.S. entities that are owned or controlled by U.S. persons to engage in certain transactions with Iran under OFAC’s General License H. A number of foreign affiliates of U.S. companies started doing business and made investments in Iran pursuant to these authorizations.

The U.S. government will reinstate all sanctions against Iran that were lifted by the JCPOA, including General License H. The reinstatement will take place in two phases – 90 and 180 days after the May 8 withdrawal – to allow U.S. and non-U.S. businesses to wind down their existing business with Iran. The sanctions that will be re-imposed and the authorizations that will be revoked are listed below. All parties engaged in any of the activities listed below should take necessary steps to wind down these activities by the dates indicated to avoid sanctions and enforcement actions under U.S. law.

To read the full text of the Alert, we invite you to visit the Fox Rothschild website.

On January 12, 2018, President Trump issued a statement announcing that he will approve certain sanctions waivers necessary in order to preserve the Iran nuclear deal. At the same time, he called on the U.S.’s European allies to work with the U.S. to fix the flaws of the Iran nuclear deal (the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action or the JCPOA), or he would terminate the deal.

President Trump began his statement by condemning the Iranian regime as the world’s leading state sponsor of terror. He also added 14 more Iranian individuals and entities to the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List.

In his statement, President Trump explained that he is open to working with Congress on bipartisan legislation dealing with Iran. However, any bill must include four critical components. First, the bill must allow immediate inspection by international inspectors at all nuclear sites. Second, it must demand that Iran not come close to possessing nuclear weapons. Third, there must be no expiration date on these requirements. Finally, the bill must subject Iran’s long-range missile program to the same sanctions imposed on its nuclear weapons program.

Although President Trump waived the application of certain nuclear sanctions, he stated that “this is a last chance.” He called on the U.S.’s European allies to fix the Iran deal and made it clear that if the allies cannot agree on a new supplemental JCPOA, President Trump will not waive sanctions again to stay in the deal. The President also reserved the right to withdraw from the deal immediately if he determines that an agreement is not within reach.

The President’s full statement can be found here.

Last week the Trump administration announced new Iran-related sanctions imposed against 18 Iranian entities and individuals. The sanctions are the administration’s response to Iran’s ballistic missile program and destabilizing actions in the region.

The actions of the administration were taken pursuant to Executive Order (E.O.) 13382, which targets proliferators of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery by freezing the assets of those proliferators, as well as E.O. 13581, which blocks the property of transnational criminal organizations.

The U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) placed sanctions on individuals and entities for their support of the Iranian military and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, and for engaging in international hacking efforts. The U.S. Department of State placed sanctions on entities for their involvement in ballistic missile research and development for the Iranian government.

These sanctions were announced only a day after the Trump administration recertified Iran’s compliance with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). The JCPOA is a 2015 nuclear deal that was agreed to by the P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.), the European Union (EU), and Iran, to ensure a peaceful nuclear program in Iran. The JCPOA offers Iran sanctions relief if it continues to curb its nuclear program and follow the timeline of requirements set forth in the JCPOA.

The JCPOA states that its participants anticipate that the “full implementation of this JCPOA will positively contribute to regional and international peace and security.” However, the U.S. believes that the other actions taken by Iran undermine the positive contributions and goals of the JCPOA to bring about peace and security in the Middle East.

These new sanctions mean that Americans are prevented from doing business with these newly sanctioned entities and individuals. It also means that any assets these entities and individuals have in the U.S. will be frozen.

In a press release issued in connection with the announcement of the sanctions, the State Department also called upon Iran to release Baquer Namazi, Siamak Namazi, and Xiyue Wang, all of whom are U.S. citizens detained by Iran.

Despite the announcement of the new sanctions, the U.S. is still committed to complying with its commitments under the JCPOA, and Iran will continue to receive the same sanctions relief it received under former President Obama.

On January 16, 2016, the U.S. Department of State and the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) lifted certain nuclear-related “secondary sanctions” (sanctions targeting non-U.S. persons for certain Iran-related activities undertaken outside of the U.S.) against Iran pursuant to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). This long awaited action took place in exchange for Iran’s commitment to limit its nuclear program and after the International Atomic Energy Agency verified that Iran carried out its nuclear commitments under the JCPOA.  Notwithstanding the sanctions relief, U.S. companies and persons continue to be barred from most transactions involving Iran and many secondary sanctions continue to stay in place.

Copyright: kagenmi / 123RF Stock Photo
Copyright: kagenmi / 123RF Stock Photo

WHO DOES THIS MOSTLY AFFECT?

The sanctions relief will be particularly important for global companies headquartered in the United States, U.S. private equity firms with foreign investments, and other United States entities with foreign subsidiaries.

WHAT CAN FOREIGN SUBSIDIARIES OF U.S. COMPANIES NOW DO?

On January 16, 2016, OFAC issued General License H (GL H) “Authorizing Certain Transactions Relating to Foreign Entities Owned or Controlled by a United States Person”.

The sanctions relief offered by GL H allows foreign entities “owned or controlled” by a U.S. person or entity to engage in most transactions with the Government of Iran or any person subject to the jurisdiction of the Government of Iran that were previously prohibited by Section 215 of the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations (ITSR) with certain important exceptions outlined below.  An entity is “owned or controlled” by a U.S. person if the U.S. person: (1) holds a 50% or greater equity interest by vote or value in the entity; (2) holds a majority of seats on the board of directors of the entity; or (3) otherwise controls the actions, policies, or personnel decisions of the entity. This does NOT include foreign branches of US persons as these are considered “U.S. persons” and, therefore, do not qualify for the sanctions relief.

WHAT CAN’T FOREIGN SUBSIDIARIES OF U.S. COMPANIES NOW DO?

Foreign subsidiaries of U.S. companies cannot engage in transactions involving:

  • Exportation or reexportation of U.S. origin goods – the direct or indirect exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services from the United States or a U.S. person with knowledge or reason to know that these items are intended for Iran or the Government of Iran;
  • Reexportation from a third country of items containing 10% or more U.S.-controlled content with knowledge or reason to know that these items are intended for Iran or the Government of Iran; and reexport from a third country of foreign produced direct product of U.S. technology and software;
  • Any activity involving any item (including information) subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), that is prohibited by the EAR, or requires a license, based on its end-user or end-use;
  • Any transfer of funds to, from, or through the U.S. financial system (foreign subsidiaries cannot use U.S. banks to process Iran-related transactions, including as correspondent banks for U.S. dollar-denominated transactions);
  • Any military, paramilitary, intelligence, or law enforcement entity of the Government of Iran, or any official, agent, or affiliate thereof;
  • Any person, entity, aircraft or vessel on OFAC’s list of Specially Designated Nationals (SDN) (or entities owned 50% or more individually, or in the aggregate, by one or more SDNs), or Foreign Sanctions Evaders, or who has been denied export privileges by Executive Order or otherwise;
  • Any activity related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction or ballistic missiles, support for international terrorism, Iran’s support for the Syrian regime, Iran’s destabilizing activities in Yemen, or Iran’s commission of human rights abuses against its citizens; and
  • Any covered nuclear activity involving Iran outside of the official procurement channel established by the JCPOA.

Additionally, trade with Iran in defense articles and defense services subject to the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is still broadly prohibited.

Copyright: pressmaster / 123RF Stock Photo
Copyright: pressmaster / 123RF Stock Photo

WHAT CAN AND CAN’T U.S. PARENT COMPANIES (AND US EMPLOYEES WORKING ABROAD) DO?

As a general rule, U.S. persons are still prohibited from ALL actions “facilitating” Iran-related activities of foreign entities (including subsidiaries). As such, virtually any involvement in Iran-related business by U.S. parent companies of foreign subsidiaries or their U.S. person employees, officers, or directors is prohibited. U.S. persons cannot facilitate, assist, guarantee, or otherwise participate directly or indirectly in any Iran-related business (without OFAC’s authorization).

The exception to the rule, is that U.S.-persons are authorized to be directly involved in the following:

  • Establishing operating policies and procedures under which its non-U.S. subsidiary can achieve the operational separation necessary for it to transact with Iran; and
  • Providing its non-U.S. subsidiary with business support, including common email, enterprise resource planning, and other services in connection with the foreign subsidiary’s Iran trade, provided the services are fully “automated” (they must operate passively and without human intervention, other than maintenance of the systems) and are “globally integrated”.

BOTTOM LINE

With the two narrow exceptions above, the prohibitions on U.S. persons with respect to Iran remain in place.  This includes prohibitions against all actions facilitating Iran-related activities of foreign subsidiaries.  GL H, which lifts certain sanctions against transactions with Iran for foreign subsidiaries of U.S. parent companies, has important restrictions and U.S. parent companies remain liable for their foreign subsidiaries’ transactions that are not covered by GL H.

As such, U.S. parent companies need to carefully consider the risks in determining whether to allow their foreign subsidiaries to do business with Iran.  For those who choose to use GL H, it will be very important to conduct careful due diligence regarding the identity, ownership and sanctions status of the parties that they do business with involving Iran and to strictly comply with GL H in order to avoid slipping over the fine line of permitted transactions.

Copyright: kgtoh / 123RF Stock Photo
Copyright: kgtoh / 123RF Stock Photo

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (the JCPOA), between the so-called P5+1 countries (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Russia and China) and Iran was formally adopted on Oct. 18, 2015 (Adoption Day) to lift certain sanctions on Iran. Please see our previous blog post for a summary of the JCPOA.

Adoption Day is the initial milestone in implementation of the JCPOA. Accordingly, the President took the first steps to implementation by directing the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Energy to take all appropriate preparatory measures to ensure the prompt and effective implementation of the U.S. commitments under the JCPOA.

While Adoption Day marks an important milestone, the U.S. will not begin to lift sanctions on Iran until “Implementation Day,” which is the date on which the International Atomic Energy Agency confirms that Iran has implemented certain key nuclear-related measures. Implementation Day (and hence the lifting of additional U.S. sanctions) is not expected to occur until spring 2016.

OFAC issued a Frequently Asked Questions Memorandum to answer questions about Adoption Day and what that means for US businesses.

OFAC will provide further guidance on the sanctions measures that will be lifted pursuant to the JCPOA, as well as those measures that will remain in place, prior to Implementation Day. We will continue to keep you informed of any new issued guidance.

Copyright: kagenmi / 123RF Stock Photo
Copyright: kagenmi / 123RF Stock Photo

On July 14, 2015, the so-called P5+1 countries (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Russia and China) and Iran agreed on the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (the “JCPOA”) to lift certain sanctions on Iran in exchange for Iran’s assurance and commitment not to pursue certain weapons proliferations activities.   On July 20, 2015, the United Nations Security Council unanimously endorsed the JCPOA.

Continue Reading Iran Nuclear Deal – The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action